Sutra 3.1: desha bandhah chittasya dharana
- desha (deza) = part, place, point, ordinance, spot
- bandha = fastening, contracting, attachment to the world
- chittasya = chitta=mind: asya=belonging to that part, abiding, resting
- = fixed state of mind, resting in that part/state of mind
- dharana = concentration
Translated loosely into English;
Concentration is when the mind rests on a fixed object, state or point.
Patanjali begins the third chapter on the 6th limb, Concentration. It is important to understand that when in concentration, each moment, each thought has awareness of the subject and is maintained for extended periods. Concentration takes effort, yet as it becomes mastered the student will become able to ‘rest’ in the act of concentration. In order to prepare the student for meditation, it is necessary to use concentration to harness and control fluctuations of the mind field. Through mantra repetition, japa/mala use, images and other techniques concentration is improved. This is a pre-requisite for deeper states.