Sutra 2.15: parinama tapa samskara duhkhaih guna vrittih virodhat cha duhkham eva sarvam vivekinah
- parinama = change, transformation
- tapa = suffering
- samskara = subconscious imprints
- duhkhaih = by reason of suffering
- guna = (sattva, tamas, rajas) qualities of the gunas
- vrittih = fluctuations, modifications
- virodhat = stop, end
- cha duhkham = and due to suffering
- eva sarvam = is only all
- vivekinah = to the discerning one, to one who discriminates
Translated loosely into English;
To the discerning one, (who knows the Self and non-Self), all suffering is due to fluctuations of the Gunas, anguish in change, and sufferings of Samskaras (subconscious imprints).
This sutra states 3 causes of suffering which are;
1. Samskaras = imprints/impressions in the subconscious and unconscious, from this life, past lives of good/bad experiences which distort reality, situations and create more suffering.
2. 3 Gunas = the qualities of nature (Tamas: mass, lethargy/Rajas: energy/Sattva: intellect, intelligence)
3. Anguish of constant change = FEAR! Everything in nature is constantly changing, is is a quality called Entropy. This constant change, the constant cycle of life-death is what creates F the basis for fear and engulfs it.
The causes of suffering, whether subtle or gross, are applicable to all facets of life, life events, situations, relationships, etc. Pleasure seeking, external stimuli, memory of the past, daydreaming of the future all lead to increased suffering. Only in the Self, our true nature are we forever free.